... Since the advent of "development" in the early 1950s, Third World nations have demanded more meaningful assistance from monetarily richer countries and more control over their political and economic destinies. ... The objective in the following pages is to construct and then deconstruct the concept of development, and to question whether development is so fundamentally flawed that it should be abandoned in favor of a post-development paradigm. ... This perspective continues to define the development project. ... " Development has taken many shapes and forms since the 1950s, when economic growth was its sole objective. ... The "trickle down" theory, which postulated that economic growth would necessarily shrink the gap between the rich and the poor, proved to be untrue. ... Relying on the discourse of sovereignty and believing in both the power of international law and the importance of development, the NIEO movement asserted that full and permanent sovereignty was not limited to natural resources, but applied to all economic activities. ... This part turns to deconstructing the development paradigm by interrogating development as discourse and as ideology. ... Rather, many of the ideas embedded within the development paradigm, such as progress, planning, poverty and modernization are firmly rooted within Western economic, political and cultural thought. ... " Peoples with complex and varied histories, cultures and communities became homogenized masses mired in intolerable poverty and in need of Western assistance. ...