||The present study investigates three research questions which build upon the limited amount of research that examines firearms and homicide in a macro-structural context. The first is whether structural conditions, such as social disorganization and poverty, have the same effect on firearm and non-firearm homicide rates. The second examines the relationship between firearm availability and the firearm homicide rate, and how this relationship is affected when controlling for the non-firearm homicide rate. Finally, the third investigates how change in the availability of firearms affects change in the firearm homicide rate and the aggregated homicide rate. State level cross-sectional analyses were performed to address the first two questions, and a longitudinal analysis was performed on the third question. The results indicate that structural conditions affect non-firearm and firearm homicide rates similarly with some notable exceptions, and firearm availability increases the firearm homicide rate but not the aggregated homicide rate.