||The current study sought to determine when the elaborate memory trace resulting from semantic processing is established. We manipulated the time-point at which maintenance rehearsal was disrupted and examined how such disruption affected memory performance under different encoding conditions. Participants completed three encoding tasks, where they selected one of two processing words that: matched the target word in color (shallow), sound (medium), or meaning (deep). Participants covertly rehearsed target items during a maintenance period, which was interrupted at pre-determined time points. Immediately after the maintenance period, participants recalled as many target items as they could. After completing all three conditions, participants performed a delayed recognition test for all target items. Whereas deeply processed items were more accurately recognized in the delayed recognition task, items processed shallowly resulted in best immediate recall performance. The observed dissociation suggests that different processing strategies likely underlie the formation of working memory and long-term memory.